HOW THE ELECTRIC CAR’S MOTOR WORKS

At present, the electric car is one of the most powerful alternatives to combustion cars. Although it is still necessary to refine some of the parameters to achieve greater demand.

Many of you wonder how the electric car engine works. And it is a question that we are going to solve.

If we look at the mechanics, we can see that its operation is much simpler than that of a thermal engine. Unlike engines that run on fuel in which the energy is given by explosion, in these movement occurs thanks to electromagnetic interactions.

What are the parts of an electric car engine?

The parts of an electric motor are, in addition to the motor itself, the regulating system (consisting of the electronic power block, inverter, rectifier, transformer and controller) and the speed reducer and differential. In order to work the electric motor needs batteries.

Types of electric motors

The motor of the electric car can be Direct Current (DC) or Alternate Current (AC), we can talk about four types of motors in electric cars:

Asynchronous or Induction (AC) motor:

The rotation of the rotor does not go at the same speed as the magnetic field produced by the stator. This motor is ideal if you are looking for low cost, low noise or vibration, and also a reliable motor with maximum efficiency.

Permanent magnet (AC) synchronous motor:

They have high performance, speed is easily controlled and are lightweight and small in size. The rotor speed is constant. They can be radial flow or axial flow, depending on the position of the induction magnetic field. If the position is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rotor, we will speak of radial flow (they are the most used). However, those with axial flow (position parallel to the axle) have the advantage that they can be integrated into the wheel of the vehicle itself.

Synchronous motor with switched or variable reluctance (AC):

These motors are robust, have high torque and low cost. However, they do not have much power either. In this case the current is switched through the coils creating a rotating magnetic field. On the other hand, the poles of the rotor are attracted by the magnetic field and create a pair that feeds it.

Permanent magnet (DC) brush less motor:

This type of motor is often used in hybrid cars. They work through permanent magnets located in the rotor and which are fed sequentially from each phase of the stator. Their price is high and they have little power but they do have advantages such as high robustness, zero noise and they do not need maintenance.

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